Comment construire un drone – Guide étape par étape pour le bricolage

Piloter un drone est une expérience exaltante! le Il est difficile de battre le frisson de zoomer dans des lieux épiques complètement plongés dans la vue du pilote.. C'est quelque chose que beaucoup de gens souhaitent prendre mais ils ne savent souvent pas comment construire un drone, par où commencer. Le plus grand obstacle pour beaucoup est de mettre la main sur leur premier drone, alors que de nombreux amateurs optent pour la construction du leur.

Plus…

Construire son propre drone peut sembler une tâche intimidantec’est ce qui m’a été fait et il ya une montagne d’informations à parcourir avant que tout ne commence à avoir un sens. Heureusement, ce n’est pas aussi difficile que cela en a l'air et avec un peu de guidance, vous serez dans les airs en un rien de temps, tout en acquérant des compétences pratiques! Au début, l’idée peut sembler effrayante mais je crois fermement que quiconque est armé de la bonne information pourra continuer et le fera relativement sans tracas.

Comment construire un drone - Guide étape par étape pour le bricolage 2

Un petit mot sur les Drones RTFUn séjour sans faille

Une question commune que j'entends souvent est "Pourquoi voudrais-je construire mon propre drone avec autant d'excellentes options RTF (prêt à voler) et BNF (bind n fly)?"

Beaucoup de gens ont vu des produits tels que l’assistant Eachine et le Emax Hawk 5 qui sont certainement d'excellents drones pour le prix que vous payez. Le problème est que dans ce passe-temps, vous allez vous écraser et quand je dis crash, je veux dire beaucoup! Généralement, dans une session, je tombe en panne une dizaine de fois et je me trouve souvent obligé de réparer mon drone pour pouvoir me relever.

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L'association de hautes performances, d'une grande dynamique de vol et d'une configuration facile fait du Hawk 5 le moyen le plus simple de se rendre en drone de compétition FPV.

Cela dit le Hawk 5 et Eachine Wizard faire de bons drones de départ et vous apprendra beaucoup sur le passe-temps. Si vous êtes le genre de personne qui veut juste voler dans les airs ou n’avoir tout simplement pas le temps de construire, voici quelques options étonnantes qui seront couvertes dans notre article sur les meilleurs drones RTF.

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Eachine Wizard X220 est l’un des meilleurs drones économiques. Sa performance est adaptée pour débutant complet.

En sautant la partie de construction, vous aurez beaucoup plus de difficulté à diagnostiquer le problème et beaucoup plus à adapter les nouvelles pièces. Si vous comprenez parfaitement votre construction, vous pouvez souvent la réparer sans tracas et probablement deviner ce qui a échoué.

Drone Anatomie

Une infographie représentant la partie principale du quad dont vous aurez besoin pour construire un drone fpv. Nous allons passer en revue chaque partie et expliquer ses principales fonctions. Cliquez sur l'image pour zoomer!

FPV-drone-partsOUTILS DE BASE DONT VOUS AVEZ BESOIN

Lorsque vous débutez, vous pouvez vous en sortir avec seulement quelques outils de base. Cette liste couvre les le strict minimum vous avez besoin. Notre En profondeur QuadcopterOutils Guider couvre tous les aspects positifs qui faciliteront grandement le processus!

Outils

  • Un ensemble de clés hexagonales ou de pilotes (les tailles dépendent de votre choix de cadre)
  • Un spinner ou un cliquet M5 (8mm)
  • Un fer à souder et de la soudure
  • Coupe-fil / Décapants

Extra bits et bobs

  • Attaches de câble
  • Thermorétractable
  • Entretiens
  • Ruban électrique
  • Ruban adhésif double face
  • Verrou de fil (Loctite)

Quel type de drone devrais-je construire?

Vous avez peut-être déjà commencé à chercher des pièces pour découvrir qu'elles peuvent être trouvées dans toutes sortes de formes et de tailles. La meilleure façon de les classer est en réalité par la taille de l'accessoire comme suit:

construisez votre propre drone "width =" 800 "height =" 600

Quads

Construction de classe 2 ”

Généralement très petit et adapté à une utilisation en intérieur. Ils sont parfaits pour pratiquer à la maison ou par mauvais temps! Ces petites fusées sont de plus en plus populaires et certaines peuvent frapper jusqu'à 100 mph!

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Exemple de construction de classe de 2 "

Lizard est le micro drone sans brosse phare de Eachine, de la catégorie 100 mm. Il a des performances puissantes pour cette catégorie. Vérifiez les détails sous le lien.

3-4 "Micro Class Build

Le plus petit drone complet que vous devriez vraiment voler à l’extérieur. Ceux-ci volent très semblable à leurs grands frères et sont l'option parfaite pour les espaces restreints. Consultez notre guide détaillé sur les micro drones.

Diatone GT-Lapin R349 PNP 3 "largeur =" 1000 "hauteur =" 572

Nous avons couvert Diatone dans la section meilleurs micro-drones. Il peut fonctionner avec des piles 4S et peut facilement contenir des quads de 5 ".

Test du Quad 3 "parfait – Diatone GT349Un séjour sans failleUn séjour sans faille

Test-Test-Micro-Quad Diatone GT-R349 "width =" 1000 "height =" 486

Le R349 est généralement similaire au R249 +, à quelques modifications près. Les modifications incluent un empattement de 135 mm avec les mêmes bras de 6 mm de largeur et de 3 mm d'épaisseur. Le R349 est équipé de la pile Mamba qui comprend le mini contrôleur de vol F4 et les contrôleurs de vitesse 25A. Le R349 se présente à nouveau en version PnP, les récepteurs pris en charge étant PPM, SBUS et DSM.

Les moteurs ont été agrandis pour compléter le plus grand châssis d'un moteur de 4000 kv de 1408. Les moteurs vont certainement être gourmands en énergie, ce qui se traduit par un quad plus rapide. La R349 est censée être une course de 3 ”et donc peser, Diatone a abandonné la Runcam Mini split V2 pour une micro-caméra Runcam avec la TX200U vTX.

Le R349 fait vraiment comme annoncé. Sur une batterie 3s, le quad peut sembler un peu lent et lent mais déchirer sur une batterie 4s. Les PID d’origine prêts à l’emploi sont toujours défectueux, bien qu’aucune vibration ne puisse être ressentie sur les 3s, mais sur une pile de 4s, les oscillations étaient clairement affichées.

F4 mini contrôleur de vol STM32F405
MPU6000 Gyro

Fibre de carbone 3K
Empattement – 135mm

25a en continu
3-4S tension d'entrée
DShot600

1408 4000kv
Max poussée – N / A

700TVL CMOS, PAL / NTSC commutable

TX200U, 25mW / 200mW
Puissance de sortie commutable 48CH

500-850mah 4S (non inclus)

Comment construire un drone - Guide étape par étape pour le bricolage 9

5 ”Mini Class Build

Le type le plus courant de drone de course / freestyle. Souvent décrits comme étant les plus polyvalents du fait qu'ils offrent une grande quantité de puissance tout en offrant une incroyable maniabilité et sont capables de transporter une caméra HD telle qu'une GoPro sans compromettre de manière significative les caractéristiques de vol. Quatre-vingt-dix pour cent des mini-quads disponibles actuellement appartiennent à cette catégorie. À partir de diverses configurations, vous pouvez consulter les kits de drones de course recommandés que nous avons utilisés et testés.

Armattan-Chameleon "width =" 900 "height =" 368Mon caméléon armattan

6 ”Mini Class Build

Une option plus longue et efficace, idéale pour ceux qui préfèrent la vitesse plutôt que la course et effectuent des tricks rapides comme des retournements et des roulis. Cette taille est souvent utilisée dans une configuration à longue distance et permet de survoler des sites pittoresques tels que les montagnes.

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Construction de classe 7+ ”

A cette taille, vous commencez à entrer dans le photographie / vidéographie côté des choses. Ces drones sont assez gros pour transporter une caméra avec un système de stabilisation et utiliser d'autres fonctionnalités telles que le GPS leur permettant de maintenir leur position et même de rentrer chez eux automatiquement.

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TBS Discovery Pro

Ceux-ci sont généralement volé en mode de mise à niveau automatique par opposition au mode acro utilisé pour les quads plus petits et disposant de batteries plus grandes leur permettant d'aller beaucoup plus loin.

J'espère que cela vous donne une idée de la taille que vous souhaitez construire.

Lors du choix d'une taille s'il vous plaît gardez à l'esprit que plus vous allez, moins vous avez d'espace pour travailler lorsque vous construisez. D'autre part, un quad plus petit est souvent meilleur marché et son poids réduit réduira les risques de dommages lors d'un accident.

ma recommandation personnelle pour un premier drone serait un 5 ” car ils sont faciles à construire et ont assez de puissance pour soulever une caméra HD. le Le drone de 5 "offre également le stock de pièces le plus facilement disponible ce qui signifie que tout est aussi bon marché que possible et facile à obtenir.

Bien sûr, vous n'êtes pas obligé de vous en tenir à un seul drone! Découvrez Stu from UAV future wall de quads! Sa chaîne YouTube propose des vidéos de démontage et de vol de presque tous les drones pour vous aider à prendre une décision.

DRONE PARTS – Choix des composants RIGHT

Alors maintenant, vous avez une bonne idée du type de drone que vous souhaitez construire, la prochaine étape consiste à: choisir des composants appropriés. Chaque build va varier d'une personne à l'autre mais presque toutes les versions suivront les mêmes éléments de base. Pour chaque composant, j'expliquerai ce qu'il fait, les choix que vous devrez faire et le strict minimum que vous devriez rechercher.

Plongeons dans:

Cadre du bourdon "width =" 730 "height =" 574

C'est votre point de départ! Il s’agit du corps principal de votre construction où vous montez toutes vos pièces et obtenez le tout ensemble. Les cadres sont normalement en fibre de carbone et sont assemblés avec divers accessoires de montage, tels que des entretoises ou des profilés en aluminium. Ils peuvent venir dans toutes sortes de formes et de tailles, nous avons couvert les cadres de quadricoptères dans le guide détaillé.

Les choix que vous devrez faire:

Léger racer ou freestyler? – Les drones de course sont généralement des cadres légers, légers et agiles. Les Drones Freestyle volent toutefois mieux avec un peu de poids, car cela leur permet de résister à différentes cascades. Un drone Freestyle nécessite généralement plus de protection, car il survole souvent des surfaces plus élevées et plus dures.

Batterie montée sur le dessus ou trop basse? – Cela affectera le centre de gravité mais pourrait rendre la batterie plus vulnérable. Plus vous vous rapprochez du centre, plus votre drone volera en douceur.

Y a-t-il un endroit pour monter une caméra HD? – Si vous voulez en porter un bien sûr! Les drones de course optent normalement pour ne pas en raison du poids supplémentaire. Pour de nombreux cadres, des options imprimées en 3D sont disponibles.

Voulez-vous des bras interchangeables ou une conception d'une seule pièce? Les bras interchangeables peuvent réduire les temps d'arrêt, mais aussi augmenter le poids.

Puis-je insérer tous mes composants dans cet espace? Voyez-vous de la place pour monter tous vos composants, cela pourrait limiter vos options plus tard dans la ligne.

Pour les tailles de cadre de 5 "+, vous devriez rechercher des bras d'au moins 4 mm d'épaisseur. Pour les bras de 3" à 4 ", vous pouvez descendre jusqu'à 3 mm et pour les 2" à seulement 2,5 mm. Tout plus mince que cela va casser trop facile.

Pour les tailles de cadre de 5 "+, vous devriez rechercher des bras d'au moins 4 mm d'épaisseur. Pour les bras de 3" à 4 ", vous pouvez descendre jusqu'à 3 mm et pour les 2" à seulement 2,5 mm. Tout plus mince que cela va casser trop facile.

Vous pouvez voir des images de la taille d'un moteur à l'autre, par exemple 220 mm. Le tableau suivant vous montre une conversion approximative de ce que vous devriez rechercher en termes de taille.

Il y a beaucoup à considérer ici! Si vous êtes bloqué ou avez des doutes, jetez un coup d'œil aux pilotes dont vous aimez le style de vol et découvrez ce qu'ils volent. De nombreux pilotes de haut niveau ont construit des vidéos qui expliquent les points clés de leurs images et expliquent pourquoi ils choisissent de les piloter.

Rotor Builds est une autre ressource utile à utiliser pour vous aider à choisir des pièces. Le site présente les Drones créés par les utilisateurs et inclut des détails tels que des listes de pièces et des guides de construction! C'est un bon endroit pour trouver l'inspiration.

Drone-Builds "width =" 800 "height =" 319
Drone Motors "width =" 864 "height =" 720

Ce sont les centrales qui donnent le ton à votre quad atteindre les vitesses folles les drones modernes atteignent. Il y a beaucoup de choix de moteurs sans balai pour le mini quad, c'est difficile à décider. Lors du choix des moteurs, certaines caractéristiques sont fournies avec le moteur fourni par le fabricant. Vous devriez pouvoir trouver des informations détaillées sur le poids, la poussée, la puissance, le régime, etc.

Lors de la construction du drone, examinez de plus près ces spécifications dans un moteur:

Taille du moteur

Le premier point est le Taille, une taille de moteur est généralement notée dans un XXYY format avec les deux premiers chiffres faisant référence au stator diamètre en mm et les deux autres étant le hauteur des aimants. Fondamentalement, plus ces chiffres sont élevés, plus le moteur est capable de produire un couple élevé; songez à cela comme à la taille du moteur, l’inconvénient de grandes tailles étant le poids. En termes de performances, un couple plus élevé permet au moteur d'atteindre sa vitesse cible plus rapidement, ce qui augmente la sensation et la réponse du drone. Cela pourrait être utile dans le cas d'un quad plus lourd ou lors de l'utilisation d'accessoires lourds.

KV

Un autre facteur à considérer est kv, cela représente la constante de vitesse des moteurs ce qui signifie combien de tours par volt votre moteur peut donner, par exemple un moteur de 2300kv à plein régime sur 10V tournerait à 23000tpm. La sélection de la valeur kv revient à sélectionner une vitesse dans une transmission manuelle. Si vous descendez, vous obtiendrez plus de couple, mais une vitesse de pointe inférieure et augmenterez votre vitesse de pointe au prix du couple.. De manière générale, monter plus haut nécessite soit un gros moteur puissant, soit une installation incroyablement légère. Une configuration de 3 "par exemple aura un indice de kv beaucoup plus élevé par rapport à une conception de 5".

Le tableau suivant répertorie quelques options possibles pour vous en fonction de la taille de votre accessoire:

Hauteur d'aimant recommandée

Lorsque vous recherchez un moteur, vous devriez être en mesure de trouver un tableau de spécifications qui vous donne des détails sur la poussée avec différents accessoires et le dessin de l’ampli que nous devrons connaître plus tard. En général, avec un mini-quad, vous devriez viser un rapport poussée / poids de 10-1. Le tableau ci-dessous est un exemple de moteur Emax RS2205 Red Bottom qui était un moteur 5 "très performant au début de 2016. Ces jours-ci, il offre des performances moyennes par rapport à la concurrence, mais serait excellent pour une première construction.

drone-motor "width =" 482 "height =" 514drone-motor-props-size "width =" 704 "height =" 591

Lectures complémentaires:

Guide de moteur sans brosse de quadcopter

Miniquad Test Bench est une excellente ressource pour la recherche et la comparaison de moteurs. Il est géré par Ryan Harrell. Sur le site, Ryan donne des informations sur les moteurs les plus modernes et fournit toutes les données que vous pouvez évaluer et établir vous-même. Si vous n'êtes pas sûr d'avoir le moteur de la bonne taille, jetez un œil à quelques-uns des accessoires qui tournent et voyez si cela correspond à vos attentes.

Ces petites composantes appelées contrôleurs de vitesse électroniques sont ce qui produit le courant alternatif triphasé nécessaire au fonctionnement de vos moteurs. Le contrôleur de vol envoie un signal au contrôleur pour l'informer de la vitesse à laquelle il souhaite faire tourner le moteur à un moment donné. Vous aurez besoin d’un esc pour chaque moteur, vous pouvez soit obtenir quatre CES séparés pour les monter sur les bras ou obtenir un tout en un qui se trouve dans votre cadre si vous avez la pièce.

esc-electronic-speed-controller-litlebee

Choses à considérer:

L'ampli dessine de votre configuration! Rappelez-vous ces tables de moteur que vous regardiez? Vous remarquerez qu'il y a une colonne de tirage d'ampli. Vous aurez besoin du courant de rupture de votre contrôleur pour dépasser cette valeur, sinon ils pourraient s'enflammer en plein vol!

Les ESC sont raisonnablement intelligents et peuvent fonctionner avec différents logiciels. Au moment de la rédaction de cet article, vous ne devriez vraiment considérer que les CES BlHeli_S ou KISS ESC. L'ancien Bleli ou Simon K le logiciel est maintenant obsolète.

L'ESC peut communiquer avec le contrôleur de vol via différents protocoles (les considérer comme des langues). Le protocole standard actuel est Dshot, si un ESC ne supporte pas Dshot 600 ou plus il ne faut pas considérer ces jours.

Comment construire un drone - Guide étape par étape pour le bricolage 10
Contrôleur de vol Drone "width =" 800 "height =" 743

le contrôleur de vol est le cerveau de votre drone en tenant compte de l'angle de votre drone et de votre entrée de commande, il calcule la vitesse de rotation des moteurs et envoie les signaux aux contrôleurs. Les contrôleurs de vol sont généralement conçus pour certains logiciels tels que Betaflight, KISS ou Raceflight afin que votre choix de logiciel puisse influer sur votre décision.

L’option la moins chère et la plus populaire est actuellement Betaflight, BAISER sur le dessus de la main est dit être plus lisse, mais est plus cher et, enfin, Raceflight est un développement plus récent et plus avant-gardiste.

Choses à considérer

Processeur – au cœur de tous les contrôleurs de vol se trouve un microprocesseur qui travaille dur pour vous garder dans les airs, nous n'utilisons que des puces F3 ou F4, je vous recommande donc de choisir un contrôleur de vol avec l'un d'entre eux. La puce F7 arrive lentement, mais nous ne l’utilisons pas encore vraiment. Les anciennes puces F1 présentes sur les cartes CC3D et NAZE 32 sont maintenant obsolètes et ne seront plus prises en charge par les futures mises à jour logicielles.

Tout en un ou séparé – De nombreux contrôleurs de vol modernes sont incorporer le PDB dans le contrôleur de vol lui-même! C'est idéal pour les constructions plus serrées, car vous n'avez besoin que d'une seule carte dans la pile et le câblage est simplifié. Les seuls points négatifs sont qu’ils sont normalement plus densément peuplés, ce qui vous laisse moins de place pour souder des fils et nécessite souvent des connexions des deux côtés. le Betaflight F3 est un excellent exemple de contrôleur de vol tout en un.

OSD (Affichage à l'écran) – Les contrôleurs de vol dotés d'une puce OSD intégrée sont capables d'afficher toutes sortes d'informations utiles sur votre flux vidéo, telles que la tension de la batterie, la consommation de courant et même un horizon artificiel. Je recommanderais fortement un OSD, mais ils peuvent également être exécutés séparément du contrôleur de vol ou à bord du PDB lui-même.

Ports UART – Les périphériques externes sont souvent connectés au contrôleur de vol via des ports UART. Ces dispositifs comprennent des récepteurs, des OSD autonomes, des systèmes de télémétrie et des émetteurs vidéo contrôlables. Pour une première construction, vous n’aurez peut-être pas à vous soucier de ces problèmes, mais pour les drones plus riches en fonctionnalités, vous devrez vous assurer de disposer de suffisamment de ports UART pour ce que vous souhaitez réaliser. Je vous recommanderais toujours de regarder le brochage de votre carte choisie pour vous assurer qu’elle dispose de connexions pour tout ce dont vous avez besoin.

PDB – Le tableau de distribution de l'alimentation

PDB-Power-Distribution-Board "width =" 800 "height =" 862

Votre PDB prend votre tension de batterie et fournit divers points pour vous connectez tous vos autres appareils électroniques. Généralement, un PDB est doté d’un régulateur pour alimenter vos composants basse tension tels que le contrôleur de vol et la caméra. Vous pouvez également vous intéresser aux exigences de tension, aux emplacements des connecteurs et à la consommation de courant maximale.

Choses à considérer:

Exigences de tension – Des composants tels que votre contrôleur de vol nécessitent le plus souvent une tension de 5V; certaines caméras peuvent nécessiter une tension de 12V. Si vous les alimentez directement à partir de votre batterie, ils vont très probablement s'enflammer! Pour cette raison, le PDB que vous choisissez doit contenir des régulateurs de tension ou BECS (circuits d'élimination de batterie) pour vous fournir la sortie de puissance dont vous avez besoin!

Emplacement des connecteurs – Votre PDB typique fournit des connexions pour votre batterie, des connexions pour quatre contrôleurs, puis divers pads basse tension (souvent 5V et 12V). Lors de la planification de votre construction, essayez de visualiser où vous voulez tout mettre et si les pads sont réellement là où vous les voulez. Certains connecteurs de batterie, par exemple, sont collés sur le côté, ce qui vous permet de connecter directement un connecteur XT-60. D'autres, cependant, ont simplement deux pads qui vous obligent à utiliser un fil de batterie.

Courant maximal – Cela n’est vraiment nécessaire que si vous avez un ensemble incroyablement puissant, qui tire plus de courant que la plupart des autres. L'APB sera souvent évalué à un certain courant (généralement supérieur à 100 A). La même chose devrait être faite sur tous les régulateurs, mais encore une fois ne sera vraiment nécessaire qu'avec des configurations plus gourmandes en énergie telles que celles exécutant la RunCam Split.

C'est le oeil de ton dronej'espère que tout ce que vous verrez sera visible dans vos lunettes! Ce qui est important ici, c’est que nous pouvons voir clairement dans toutes les conditions d’éclairage et qu’il n’ya aucun retard à nous fournir l’image, ce qui pourrait provoquer un crash. Il y a quelques options très similaires ici qui fonctionneront toutes très bien. La plupart des appareils photo sont également livrés avec une charge de montures et d’étuis pouvant s’inscrire dans n’importe quel cadre.

fpv-camera "width =" 479 "height =" 358

Choses à considérer:

Type de capteur – Les caméras FPV ont généralement un capteur d'image CMOS ou CCD à l'intérieur. Les caméras CMOS sont généralement moins chères et plus légères mais ne permettent pas de réagir rapidement aux changements d’éclairage. Ceci est tout à fait nécessaire en vol FPV car nous sommes souvent confrontés au soleil éclatant suivi d'un sol plus sombre, tout manque de visibilité pourrait provoquer un accident!

Vous pouvez vous en sortir en pilotant avec une caméra CMOS bon marché, mais un CCD vous donnera de meilleurs résultats. Presque toutes les caméras CCD utilisent le capteur Sony Super HAD II, qui est la norme de référence en matière de drones FPV. Des exemples de ceci incluent les variantes RunCam Swift ou HS1177.

Il existe également des caméras spéciales spéciales qui tirent mieux parti de la technologie CMOS, telles que les caméras Monster ou Eagle à haute résolution et les caméras à faible éclairage telles que Owl ou Night Wolf.

Résolution et latence – Je les ai regroupés car ils vont de pair, plus la résolution est élevée, plus la latence est grande. Les caméras analogiques sont classées en TVL, ce qui correspond au nombre de lignes horizontales sur l’écran.

En raison de la latence supplémentaire, je vous recommande de vous en tenir à la même résolution que vos lunettes (en général 600tvl). Une autre considération est la météo pour laquelle vous souhaitez une résolution 4: 3 ou 16: 9, 4: 3 étant la plus courante.

Caractéristiques de la caméra – Certains appareils photo possèdent des fonctionnalités spéciales telles que la possibilité de surveiller la tension de votre batterie et de l'afficher à l'écran. Les autres options sont des caméras à faible luminosité qui peuvent voir dans l'obscurité presque totale. Il existe des mini-caméras et même des micro-caméras pouvant être un meilleur choix pour les petites constructions, tandis que certaines caméras offrent un microphone pour les flux audio.

Lentille – Les lentilles de tailles différentes donnent un champ de vision différent (FOV) qui permet au pilote de voir plus autour de lui. Plus le champ de vision est élevé, plus vous aurez également à traiter avec l’effet fisheye.

2.8mm – L'ancien standard, FOV très étroit
2,5 mm – Un objectif polyvalent, identique à celui de la GoPro!
2.1mm – Un objectif grand angle, il offre une excellente vue pour le vol libre mais peut être trop large pour la course.

UNE comparaison de lentilles peut être vu dans cette vidéo.

fpv-lentilles-comparaison "width =" 585 "height =" 326Transmetteur vidéo (VTX)

L'émetteur vidéo capte le signal de votre caméra et l'envoie par votre antenne.

Choses à considérer:

Puissance de sortie – Différents VTX pompent votre vidéo à différents niveaux de puissance. Celles-ci vont souvent de 25 à 800 mW, certaines offrant un moyen de commutation de la puissance de sortie.

Options de la chaîne – La plupart des VTX modernes peuvent gérer la plupart des bandes de canaux, y compris Raceband. Tant que la liste des chaînes VTX est compatible avec votre récepteur, tout devrait bien aller!

VTX-Video "width =" 600 "height =" 956

Qualité du signal – Celui-ci dépend vraiment de la personne avec qui vous allez piloter. Vous remarquerez que certains VTX offrent la même puissance et les mêmes options de canaux, mais coûtent jusqu'à quatre fois plus! La raison en est que les VTX moins chères génèrent du bruit sur une plage beaucoup plus large que le canal sélectionné, ce qui peut entraîner des interférences dans les flux vidéo des autres pilotes.

If you intend to fly on your own a cheap VTX will work great for you however if you intend to fly in larger groups or at race events you really need a clean transmitter like the TBS Unify Pro or the IRC Tramp.

Switching Options – If you do intend to fly with other people or at race events then you'll often have to change channel to ensure everyone can get clean video. Traditionally VTXs have a small push button you can use to cycle through video channels, bands and power levels, the channel is then shown via a LEDs on the VTX itself.

The more race friendly transmitters actually connect up to your flight controller and allow channel changing via an OSD or a Taranis Transmitter. Although it sounds like a little feature it makes a huge difference when flying in groups of over three pilots and is one I cannot go without anymore

Be sure to check what is legal in your country! Some VTX have limits of 25 or 200mW

Video Antennas

The best way to improve your video range or clarity isn't necessarily increasing the VTX output power but is actually getting a good pair of antennas. Those black dipole antennas you get with cheap goggles or VTXs referred to as 'rubber duckies' really don't perform well and are often binned and replaced with a high end antenna. An FPV setup requires two antennas, one to send out the video and another to receive it.

Things to considerUn séjour sans faille​​​​

Antenna type – Different antenna designs have different performance, without going into too much detail dipoles perform poorly where as circular polarized antennas perform well. More innovative recent antennas such as TBS Triumph or Pagoda push video range even further. A patch antenna can be used to increase range but only in one direction and should only be used as a receiving antenna.

Connector Type – Antennas come with two connector types SMA and RP-SMA both can talk to each other fine but you need to make sure they match your VTX or goggles connectors. Failing that adaptors are available.

Polarization – The antenna itself can come in tow flavors RHCP and LHCP both work the same but they must match in order to get a signal. By having different polarizations it is possible to get more pilots in the air at once.

La robustesse – Obviously the antenna on the drone will be subject to a lot more abuse than the one on your goggles! For this reason I recommend using your best/most delicate antenna as a receiver and using a durable protected antenna on the drone.

Hopefully you've already chosen your drone size in inches so you know your prop size! My honest recommendation for a beginner is to get a big box of cheap props as you will break them incredibly quickly. Props are often denoted as a AxBxC where A is the size in inches, B is the pitch (angle of the prop) and C is the number of blades.

Drone Propellers" width="926" height="1073

A 5x4x3 for example is a 5" prop with a 40 degree pitch and three blades (triblade) this may also be described as a 5040 triblade and is coincidently a great place to start when looking for a 5" quad.

Other things to consider

Number of Blades – Whilst we started using two blades we soon learnt that adding more blades provided us with more grip and control preventing against drifting in corners. Props come from two blades up to six blades with triblades being the most common option. Increasing the number of blades will increase current draw, add weight to the prop and reduce the maximum achievable top speed.

Current Draw – The higher the pitch of the prop the faster you can go but at the same time your motors will draw more current pushing your electronics harder and draining you battery faster! Adding more blades is also a sure fire way to shoot up the amps drawn. If you want to use a high pitched prop (45+) I would suggest getting some larger motors with more torque and some higher rated ESCs. (You can use MiniQuad Test Bench or manufacturers specification to check these!)

Poids – Often ignored the weight of your

Stiffness – This is information you are only really going to find from testing props or reading some reviews. Some props particularly the thin ones can bend when spinning reducing their effectiveness. Ones that bend however may survive a crash better than stiffer props that could simply snap on impact. Finding the right prop for you can be tricky

Special Profiles – Typically a prop has a curved airfoil surface designed to efficiently cut through the air and provide as much lift as possible. Some props are shaped slightly differently to modify their performance. Examples of this include:

  • Bullnose Props – A bullnose prop is effectively the width and length of a larger prop cut down to the size it's intended for (ie 6" cut down to 5") This gives it a much wider profile with flat ends as opposed to round tips and provides more power.
  • RaceKraft Props – Recently designed props designed by Racekraft have a varying pitch along the length of then prop. The idea is to provide maximum efficiency at approimately 60mph making these incredibly popular for racers and speed addicts!
  • 3D Props – 3D props are for those who want to be able to stop their motors in mid air and reverse the direction allowing them to fly inverted for as long as they want! Normal props are very inefficient when running in 3D mode so 3D props are usually completely flat running at a 45 degree pitch to keep them the same in both rotations. 3D flying is hard and not recommended for beginners! Check out Zoe FPV on YouTube to see some of the best 3D flying around! DJI Mavic Can't Touch My 3D Dancin'

Hopefully that gives you an idea of what to look for. This video by Rotor Riot shows some of the differences between the props and why pilots Chad Nowak and Mr Steele fly what they fly.

I'll tell you what almost every other website or drone forum will tell you in terms of remotes…. If you can afford it get an FrSky Taranis! For the money you pay the Taranis really is an exceptional remote that can really do anything you can think of. Taranis wise your options would be either the QX7 or X9D and their deluxe plus or special addition variants.

Drone Transmitter-TX" width="936" height="936

Other options would be the cheaper FlySky i6, Spectrum models or if you are a hardcore gamer the Turnigy Evolution is more of a game controller style.

Transmitters can be a lengthy subject in themselves so I'll just try to list a few features you should consider looking for in a remote and reciever:

Choses à considérer:

Gimbals and Grip – You probably don’t know how you'll hold your radio yet and will want to try a few things out but basically some people prefer to use their thumbs to hold the sticks like a PlayStation or Xbox controller whereas others prefer to pinch the sticks between their thumb and index finger. It doesn't matter which you use however some radios more naturally lend themselves to one of the other. Another point is the general quality of the gimbals in the remote, high quality hall sensor gimbals will feel a lot smother than cheaper versions.

Piles – Some remotes include rechargeable batteries whereas others rely on AA batteries. I would really recommend getting a system that can be charged as they will work out cheaper and last much longer. I had to modify my Taranis QX7 to be able to run some 18650 batteries like this:

Taranis-2S-Li-Ion

Communications Protocol – All radios talk to their corresponding receivers in their own language with some communicating your stick inputs faster than others. What this means is you will experience quicker response times and have more control over the drone. You want to look for remotes/receivers that support either SBUS (FrSky) , IBUS (FlySky), DSM2 and DSMX (Specktrum).

Telemetry – The drone can actually send key information back to the remote allowing you to know when to land and all sorts. In order to do this both the telemetry feature needs to be on both the transmitter on receiver. Many remotes with this feature are able to talk to you and can read out customisable warnings to tell you when to land or when your signal is getting weak!

Receiver Options – When choosing your remote it's worth looking at what receivers are available for it. For example some are way to big for use in min quads however some are too small and lack a decent range. Look for a system that supports your needs a price point. If you do decide to go for a ready to fly drone with a receiver make sure that it is compatible with your remote! You will typically get a selection between FrSky, FlySky and Spectrum.

transmitter-qx7-receiver" width="730" height="400

Customisation – Most remotes allow you to configure your basic channels and even set up audio alerts however some can offer so much more! I'm talking here about Open Tx which is the firmware running on the Taranis's and some other radios. This firmware is highly customisable and allows to do literally anything you can think of. Of course for some this may not be necessary but features such as fine turning my flight controller settings and changing my video channel through the remote are incredibly handy!

Note that in order to use some of these features the transmitter and receiver must support them.

Just like transmitters goggles are a huge topic, so we covered them indepth in our FPV Goggles Guide! These can become the most expensive part of your setup with the only saving grace being the fact that you won't crash and break them.

Drone Goggles" width="900" height="563
Comment construire un drone - Guide étape par étape pour le bricolage 11Comment construire un drone - Guide étape par étape pour le bricolage 12

Loaded with features including a low-profile faceplate, DVR, and HDMI-in capability, the HD3 can accommodate a wide variety of analog and digital inputs to produce the finest, lowest latency image on the market.

Goggles often have a very high resale value if you don't like them! I often advise people to either get their hands on a very cheap pair with the goal of upgrading later or just go premium right form the off. Here are some of the basic things to look at:

Box Style or Visor – Goggles can take two forms, either the slick visor style (such as FatSharks) that feature a small display for each eye or the larger box style goggles that simply incorporate an LCD screen in a darkened box attached to your face. Box goggles can be up to ten times cheaper than some FatSharks but offer reasonable performance if you don’t mind the form factor.

Résolution – As with most displays resolution will make the biggest difference in terms of performance and price. Of course or FPV cameras are not HD quality themselves however for a reasonable flight experience you should aim for no lower than 640×480 pixels. As with FPV cameras you can have 4:3 or 16:9 options and should really match the two.

FOV – This stands for field of view and relates to how big the image looks in your goggles. A low FOV would be comparable to watching a TV in the distance whereas a higher one would be like being in an Imax theatre! Of course there becomes a point where things get too big and you need to find the sweet spot for you! I would suggest looking along the range of 30 to 60 degrees, the following image from Flite Test shows a comparison between some of the FatShark offerings. Typically box goggles will give you a much higher resolution and FOV for a lower price.

fat-shark-goggles-comparison" width="800" height="450

Receiver – Some goggles come with a built in receiver whereas it will be an add on module for others. Things to look for are features such as diversity which allow you to use two separate antennas to maximise your signal. Other features are channel searching and OLED displays, these features ay not be necessary for you if you are planning to fly alone or not too far.

HDMI – Some goggles have an HDMI input allowing you to use them to play on a drone simulator or watch a movie. Look for this option if you value this feature.

DVR – A DVR is a digital video recorder which takes your footage and saves it to a micro SD card for you to watch later. This is useful if you don't want to carry a HD camera however the DVR quality will be far lower than what you would expect.

Check out some of my DVR footage I took from my micro drone that can't carry a camera: ARMATTAN BUMPER – Maiden Flight RAW!

Batteries come in all shapes and sizes and it's important to find the right ones for your build. Most frames or motors recommend a certain battery size in their suggested parts list. When it comes to batteries you can never have enough and I would recommend a minimum of four for a beginner.

Drone Battery" width="600" height="415

Typical flights last from 2.5 to 4 minutes so only having one battery can quickly become tiresome!

Warning! Drones use LiPo (Lithium Polymer) batteries that are extremely volatile and dangerous if used incorrectly. Be sure to learn about battery safety before charging or using any LiPo batteries.

Choses à considérer:

Number of Cells – Typically you will see battery packs described in terms of the number of cells such as a 4 cell or just 4s. This refers to the number of cells in series with each cell having a maximum voltage of 4.2V. The total voltage of the pack can be found by multiplying the number of cells by 4.2 ie. 4 cells x 4.2 volts = 16.8V. The higher the voltage the more power the drone will have and the faster it will go. Choosing a voltage higher than your components are rated for will cause them to burn out.

Capacité – The capacity of a cell is rated in mAh which stands for milliamp hours. This means that a 1500mAh pack can give out 1.5A for an hours time, of course we want to pull far more than that so will get much shorter flight times. Increasing the pack size will give longer flight times however will add weight, there becomes a point where the drone can't lift the extra weight of a battery.

C Rating – The C rating is often what distinguishes a good battery from a bad one, it refers to how quickly a battery can discharge it's energy and is often the limiting factor in high performance drones. For example if we have a 1500mAh battery rated at 10C that means it can give out a maximum of 15A when discharging, 10C is relatively low and will not give enough power for most drones of this size. I would recommend a C rating of at least 45 for most racing or freestyle setups. Note that some companies C ratings are not accurate and you should look at reviews to help select a battery – In general, you get what you pay for!

Chargers​​​​​

Charging your lipo batteries will require a specialist charger. They need to be charged in such a way that their voltage is managed in order to prevent disaster. Luckily there are a lot of intelligent lipo chargers out there that take most of the hard work out for you with the key feature you need being balance charging.

drone-battery-lipo-charger" width="500" height="291

I would advise not getting a cheap relatively unknown charger due to the risk of what could happen should something go wrong.

Warning! You should never charge your batteries unattended. NEVER!

Things to Consider:

Voltage – The important thing to make sure that the charger can handle your batteries, this will either be listed in the cell count or voltage specification.

Max Current or Power – This controls how fast you can charge your batteries, when charging we normally have to select a current to charge at. For most batteries this should be at 1C meaning a 1500mAh battery should be charged at 1.5A. Most chargers are either rated for a maximum current (Amps) or power (Watts) which is equal to the current multiplied by the voltage.

To sum that up a 4s (16.8V) battery with a capacity of 1500mAh will require 16.8V x 1.5A = 25.2W to charge in one hour. If our charger cannot deliver that kind of power than the battery will take longer to charge. If you want to say charge four batteries at once at this rate you would need a charger rated for at least 110W with a little headway. We can charge similar batteries at the same time by using a parallel charging board.

Source de courant – Electricity that comes from the sockets in your house is AC (Typically 230V AC in Europe or 120V AC in the USA). Our chargers and most electronic devices run on DC and require a power supply to convert this down to say 12V. Some chargers have a power supply built in however often more expensive however some will require an external one that you will have to source yourself. If you don't understand this I would suggest you get a charger with a built in supply, you can tell this by looking at the voltage input of the charger and choosing one with a 230-120V AC input.

Parallel Charging – Most chargers have only one output, if you want to charge more batteries you will need a parallel charging board. I would suggest one with a built in fuse.

Warning! Parallel charging adds even more complications and risks. Be sure you read up and understand what you are doing before attempting to parallel charge! Please watch this Rotor Riot video that cover the basics.

HD Camera

This one is entirely optional but is necessary to record your footage in a high quality viewable format. This is almost a necessity if you want to show footage to friends or publish to YouTube. The downsides to adding a HD camera include an added weight and the risk of placing an expensive camera on a drone that has the potential to crash or get lost.

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Things to Consider:

Poids – Any HD camera you add to your drone will have a direct effect on it's performance. For this reason you want to try to choose the lightest possible camera that gives you the quality of vide you need.

Mounting Options – You'll need a secure way to mount the camera to your drone, relying on rubber bands or cable ties can result in an expensive loss! Either look for a frame with built in mounting options or opt for a 3D printed case.

Video Quality – Obviously this is tied into price with the GoPro Hero5 Session currently being the gold standard for miniquad pilots. Not everyone wants to risk a $300 camera on a quad so cheaper and nearly as capable options such as the RunCam 3, Foxeer Legend and Xiaomi Yi are great choices. Look for cameras capable of higher framerates (60fps) for HD video with a wide field of view and dynamic range. YouTube has many comparison videos you can use to select the image you like best.

La robustesse – Bearing in mind that these things are going crash frequently a high end camera with a mechanical lens is probably not the best choice! An action camera style is really what's needed here if you want to protect your investment.

A relatively new option is the RunCam Split which combines an FPV and HD camera in one device. The Split consists of an FPV camera with an extra board that mounts onto your stack which takes care of the HD recording. These are relatively cheap and solve the weight issues normally associated with HD cameras however aren't perfect. Here's a review from Joshua Bardwell, a hugely respected reviewer and teacher in the FPV community.

That covers the parts list, hopefully now you have an idea of the parts you want to use and we can get onto actually building your drone! There is no set right or wrong order to do this however I find my builds normally start from the PDB and work their way outwards. This allows you to systematically get everything up and running while giving you space to easily connect each wire when needed. If certain components don't fit the order feel free to mix it up, this is only a guide line!

Lets Begin the Actual Build…

Comment construire un drone - Guide étape par étape pour le bricolage 9

How to build a FPV Drone – Step by Step

Step 1: Assembling the Frame

The very first thing to do is assemble your frame (or at least the bottom section of it). Sadly frames often come flat packed as a series of carbon fibre parts meaning your going to have to put in some work to get them ready! When doing this take care to note where all the plates go and keep in mind where you intend to mount your components and run the wires.

armattan-chameleon-frame" width="800" height="533

Some people like to sand down or apply glue to the edge of the carbon fibre to protect the edges however this is not necessary on a good quality frame.

Warning! Tightening screws too hard will strip the screw heads or the internal threads on any aluminum parts, Do not force anything further than hand tight!

Tip – Our drones are actually very subject to vibrations and some screws can rattle loose! Using a small dab of thread locker on each screw can prevent this!

Step 2: Mounting the PDB

The first component I like to mount is the PDB, the reason for this is that everything connects to it and it is the central hub to your drone. To mount your PDB your are going to need to think about which direction you want to mount it, the main considerations are going to be where your battery is going to be and if you have an all in one board where you want your USB connector to face. To mount your PDB you are going to use nylon or rubber standoffs which normally fix through the frame and allow you to build up a stack of boards.

Tip – You should solder your battery connector and tin any pads before mounting your PDB, this gives you more space to work with.

Warning! Your carbon fibre frame conducts electricity, it is important that you space the PDB away from it so that no components, pads or wires can come into contact with any carbon fibre. This is true for all of the electronics in your build.

Step 3: Mounting the Motors

The next logical step is to mount your motors, if you have clockwise and anti clockwise motors you will need to pay close attention to your motor order. The diagram below shows Betaflight's quad X layout which is widely used in most modern software.

quadcopter-motor-order" width="208" height="213

The motors can be fixed down with screws and again it is a good idea to use thread locker as opposed to tightening them too much as you will be damaging the motor itself here.

Warning! Sometimes the bolts supplied with motors can be too long. If the bolt is able to touch the winding it will create a short and damage your components. Be sure to check for this before powering it up.

Step 4: Mounting the ESCs

With the motors in place we can now mount the PDB and start to connect things up. If you have four separate ESCs the best place to mount them is on the arms. As with the PDB it is important that your ESCs do not come into contact with your frame. The best way to protect against this is to keep the ESC's protected by heatshrink. To actually mount them I use double sided tape to hold them in place and then wrap them in electrical tape after connecting them up.

If you opted for a four in one ESC you won't have to worry about all this, just mount it to your frame as described for the PDB!

Tip – ESC covers are available however a much cheaper option is to take an old prop blade and tape it over. This will defend the ESC from beings shredded by your props in the event of a crash. (I prefer to add these last once I've tested everything!)

Step 5: Connecting the ESCs to the Motors

With the ESCs in place it is time to start soldering! My first point of call here is the motors. Each motor has three wires that will need soldering to the ESC pads. With modern ESCs the order doesn't matter anymore as we can change the motor direction through software! Here's the basic procedure I like to follow:

connecting-esc-motors" width="800" height="660

1: Cut and strip the motor wires to the appropriate length

Tip – See that curl in my motor wires? I like to leave some slack as a crash can pull on some parts and damage them. Keeping some extra length on the wires gives me more options if I decide to go shorter. Remember it's much easier to cut wires than it is to extend them.

2: Tin the ESC pads and the ends of the motor, this will make soldering them much easier and faster

3: Solder each connection one at a time. You should bring the wire to the pad, heat both quickly and keep them still while they cool.

4: Check your connections, you are most importantly looking to make sure the joints are not overlapping or touching as this will cause a short. Hopefully you will have high quality shiny joints here and if not don't be afraid to redo them. Remember it only takes one of these joints to fail for your drone to fall out of the sky!

soldering-motors-to-esc" width="708" height="400

These same principles will be used for all solder connections on your drone!

Step 6: Connecting the ESCs to the PDB

We are halfway done with the ESCs! The next step is to connect them up to your PDB! Exactly the same principle as before is used here however you are connecting the positive (red) wires and the negative (black) wires to their respective pads. Again like with the motor wires I like to leave a little slack to keep things safe in a crash.

Warning! Unlike the motor wires getting these wrong WILL cause your quad to go up in flames! Double check everything and don't power up unless you are confident in your work!

Another great soldering reference for beginners is from Rotor Riot featuring the one and only Chad Nowak. In this video he covers the fundamentals of soldering your ESCs to the PDB in depth with some things to look out for! Soldering Tips

soldering-tips" width="849" height="438Step 7: The First Test!!!

With our power system set up we are now ready to perform our first test. I recommend checking and testing things as much possible for two reasons:

  1. You can stop your whole setup going up in flames! If there is a problem with your PDB wiring for example at least it won't fry your flight controller and entire FPV system!
  2. You can use the information later on to fault find other components. By eliminating possible causes we can solve future problems much quicker.

The first test which I always recommend you do before adding power is to check for any shorts with a multimeter. We can set our multimeter to a continuity mode which will emit a sound if wires are in contact. If we run a continuity check on the positive and negative pins on your battery connector we should not see any continuity. If we get a beep then there is a short circuit meaning that something is wrong and plugging in a battery will result in damage to you or the drone!

FPV Know it all Joshua Bardwell has created a great video for you demonstrating how to perform this check. His channel has 1000+ videos with invaluable information that I suggest you take a look at to improve your understanding of all things FPV. I will be referring to some more of his videos later on.

If you've passed the continuity test you can now try plugging in a battery. Hopefully you will be hearing a beep from each ESC and may possibly see a small twitch from the motors. If there's any signs of smoke or fire, unplug immediately and inspect any areas of concern.

Step 8: Mounting the FPV System

With the power system ready the next thing to do is setup our FPV System meaning our camera and VTX.

Warning! Powering up the VTX without an antenna WILL fry it. Go ahead and connect your antenna now to prevent against this happening later! I always leave old dipole antennas on my spare VTXs to stop me forgetting.

Before we go powering up these components it's a good idea to get them mounted first. Typically cameras and VTXs come with connectors for the wires so we can simply plug them in once we've sorted or soldering. Hopefully your frame will have a designated space to mount the camera, if not you can use a little bracket that comes with most cameras.

Tip – Most cameras come with a spare case, take a look at your frame and try to work out which case will fit it best.

When mounting your camera one thing to consider is it's angle. Basically the steeper the angle will make your drone travel forward faster when you are trying to look straight ahead. For beginners I would recommend a starting camera angle of around 15 degrees. As you progress you can increase it up and find your sweet spot.

To mount your VTX you normally have to get a little more imaginative. Most frames do not have an obvious place to mount them so it's really going to come down to where you have space and what you have to work with. My recommendation would be to use cable ties or double sided tape to keep it secure either on the top or bottom plate of the frame. Check out this video of pro pilot Mr Steele assembling his top plate for some inspiration. I've shared it starting at the VTX time point but take a look form the start if you want to see his entire build.

Step 9: Connecting the FPV System

The best way to power camera and VTX is off the PDB as it allows for a neat connection to the flight controller, now is the time to check the specs for your components particularly the voltage inputs. Eg 12V or 5-19V

Note – some VTXs actually have power outputs to power cameras, if this is the case you can go ahead and use that for a cleaner layout!

Both the camera and VTX should have two wires to power them a positive and negative. Your PDB should have some low voltage pads such as 5V or 12V which you hopefully selected to match your other components! You should connect the positive (red) and the negative (black) wires to the matching pads. Two wires can share the same pad which would have them running in parallel.

Note – If you are running any kind of OSD either stand alone, on the flight controller/PDB the ground connections will have designated spots for the ground connections. You should use always use these to prevent noise effecting the video signal.

The final thing to do is to connect up the video signal. This wire (typically yellow) should come out from the cameras video out and directly in to the VTXs video in. For signal wires you do not have to worry about the voltage and can splice the two wires together.

Step 10: Test the FPV System

Tip – As we did with the power system use a multi meter to check that all connections are good and that there are no short circuits before powering anything up!

We can now go ahead and test the FPV system! Again, makes sure that your video antenna is connected! I can't stress that enough anymore, you have been warned! Plug in your battery and you should get some kind of LEDs illuminating on the VTX. You can now use your goggles and set both to the same channel via their respective controls. Channels are describe by a letter and then a number such as R4. The letter describes what band you are on where the number describes the channel itself. For now all that's important is that we have matching channels and that your picture is coming through nice and clear. If it isn't you may have to go back and check your wiring.

Hopefully everything is working and you can use this as an opportunity to focus your camera by twisting the lens and using the nut to lock it into position. Position the drone 2-3m away from a focus chart like the one below, when twisting the lens you are looking for the point where you can make out the lines closest to the centre.

fpv-camera-focus-chart" width="520" height="293Step 11: Mounting and Powering the Receiver

We now need to mount and power our receiver. Typically these run on 5V (except Spektrum) and are connected to the 5V positive and ground pads on your PDB. We then will have a signal wire that we will later send to the flight controller, if your receiver supports telemetry you may have another wire for that.

You'll notice that your receiver has one or two antenna wires coming out of one end. Placement of these is critical to ensure that you get good signal and your quad doesn't lose signal and drop out of the sky (failsafe). Ideal placement for two antennas is at 90 degrees to each other in a V shape, you want to aim to keep the ends of them as far away from the carbon as possible to prevent them getting blocked.

I like to mount mine either sticking out from the arms or straight out the back. The ideal means of mounting them is by running a cable tie in the desired position and placing the antenna in some heat shrink to keep it protected.

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Pre heat shrink

The final step is to bind your receiver. This can be done at anytime however some receivers have a dedicated bind button that can be hard to access later. Different transmitters have different methods of binding however they all normally involve powering on with the button held down and the transmitter itself in bind mode. Consult your transmitters manual for the details!

Warning! – One of the most important steps is to set up your failsafe. This stops the drone from flying away incase it disconnects from the remote and could stop it from injuring you or others. These will vary between different transmitter/receiver combinations.

Some transmitters have more to configure than others! This video shows Joshua Bardwell setting up everything in his special edition Taranis. How To Set Up FrSky Taranis and Betaflight / Cleanflight Configuration

Step 12: Wiring the Flight Controller

The final component to mount is the flight controller! This is the brain of your drone and we will be connecting nearly all of our signal wires here. The hardest part of wiring the flight controller is knowing what goes where since all flight controllers have a slightly different layout. The very first thing I suggest you do is search for a pinout diagram of your board, it should look something like this:

Flip32-F4-Flight-Controller-pinout" width="1200" height="768

Some manufactures such as Matek have even started giving users full wiring diagrams such as the one below. This shows you exactly what pads you are looking to solder making things much easier for you. Note that all the red and black power wires we have already soldered! The following diagram is for the boards that I am using, it is however a little unique as there is a ribbon cable connecting the PDB to the flight controller.

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Typically you will be looking to connect the following wires to their respective pads:

Puissance – As with all other components we need to power them, almost all flight controllers require 5V however some have there own regulator and will run off battery voltage. You will need to check what input your flight controller requires for this.

Vbat – If your flight controller runs off of 5V it will still need to read the main battery voltage if you want to make use of features such as the OSD or beeper. You will often have a positive and negative wire to do this connecting to the Vbat and ground pads.

Motors – Each of the four motors will have one signal wire (typically white) and one round wire (black). Refer to the motor layout diagram for the order!

Receiver – You'll have one signal in wire to connect to either an UART RX port or a dedicated SBUS port etc. You may also have a telemetry wire which will connect to a different UART TX!

OSD – If you have an OSD you will have connectors for video in, video out and then grounds for both signals. It is important that you use these grounds for both your camera and VTX if you want clean video.

Some extras you could also include could be

Buzzer – This works as a mean to find your lost drone in a crash or to warn you if the battery gets low. Flight controllers typically have a + and – buzzer pad to use here.

LEDs – You can run all kinds of LEDs with all kinds of patterns on your drone which are great for distinguishing your drone whilst racing. LED strips are typically powered by any + and – 5V pads with a signal wire connecting to the flight controller. As with most components I would recommend powering your LEDs off of the PDB if possible.

Before you do anything think about your build and plan what you want to connect where. You can then start cutting your wires to length and running any underneath the flight controller. Once you are satisfied you can mount the flight controller on your stack using nylon standoffs, when you do this make sure you have the USB port on one side for easy access later.

Tip – You can use rubber standoffs or O-rings to 'soft mount' your flight controller! This dampens some of the vibrations read by the gyro giving a smoother flight characteristic.

You may have noticed that there is some kind of arrow or chevron on the drone which is used to represent the front of the drone. Luckily with software the direction of the drone can be set so I would recommend setting the board at the angle that works best for your setup.

Here's a image showing my flight controller fully mounted. Note how the USB is on the side and all of the necessary wires are routed underneath the board where possible. The reason for doing is to protect the wires from being pulled by the battery strap which sits close on my frame. My motor wires are hidden in this view but they actually connect to the PDB via a ribbon cable.

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Flight Controller Fully Mounted

By now you should be well acquainted with Joshua Bardwell and of course has he a whole series of informative videos on wiring flight controllers that you should really watch! Your layout is likely to differ to mine so the best thing to do is learn how to understand the pinouts and wire any flight controller to meet your requirements. Flight Controller Wiring For Beginners

Step 13: Completing the Build

If you've made it this far CONGRATULATIONS! You have done all of the hard work and are 99% there with your build! The final touches are going to be the little things such as completing the frame, heat shrinking or taping any extra components and fitting a camera mount. On some builds you may want to save this step until you have completed the software configuration in case some components are difficult to access.

Tip – As we did with all other components you should take this chance to use a multi meter and check for any kind of short circuits before powering up the flight controller.

Warning! We still aren't ready to put the props on yet, we want to check that everything is working incase something goes wrong. Props are the last thing to install providing that you are 100% confident in everything else.

Armattan-Chameleon-Build" width="1000" height="750Step 14: Software Configuration

Software configuration is a huge article in itself with a massive amount to get through depending on your components and preferences that will be different for almost every build. All I can recommend is a basic checklist of things to set until we have completed a full article. Make sure you have installed a software configurator such as Betaflight on your computer and connect up to the drone via a USB cable (you may need to install the relevant drivers for your flight controller)

  1. Flash your firmware – Just like a computer runs Windows, OSX or Linux a flight controller runs different software versions. It's always best when setting up a new flight controller to update to the latest release of your firmware of choice. This is often done from the main screen of the configurator.
  2. Set up your Peripherals – When you wired up our flight controller you may of connected things to one of the UART connections, your receiver will be connected to one of these that has been labeled as SBUS. We need to set up these ports in order to tell the flight controller what it's communicating with.
  3. Drone configuration – We want to tell the drone which angle with mounted the flight controller at, which receiver we are using, how to talk to ESCs and set various limits such as the minimum throttle. There's a lot to set here which will be better explained in a future video.
  4. Set up your flight modes – These modes need to be allocated to switches on your transmitter. For a beginner I would recommend setting an Arm switch and then a separate switch for Auto level and acro mode. Additional switches can be used for features such as buzzers.
  5. Set your rates – Rates determine how sensitive your transmitter sticks are, for a beginner I would recommend leaving them at default and adjusting as your confidence grows.

Of course I couldn't not miss the opportunity to share one more Joshua Bardwell video with you! Here he is running a full Betaflight 3.2 setup showing you every step you can take.

Step 15: Final Test

Tip – As we did with the power system use a multi meter to check that all connections are good and that there are no short circuits before powering anything up!

With our software configured we are ready for our final test! Hours of your time have lead up to this moment and it's easy to get excited.

Warning! These are the tests where we are going to start spooling up the motors and all sorts could happen. Make sure you have no propellers on the drone under any circumstances!

The following things will need testing in you configurator:

Test 1 – Flight controller orientation.
We need to make sure the software knows where the front of the drone is, we should of set this up earlier but need to check it is correct. On your configurator you should see a 3D model of the drone, when you tilt your drone the model should update in real time. Confirm that it rotates in the right direction for roll, pitch an yaw.

Test 2 – Receiver Channels
We need to make sure that our flight controller is talking to our receiver correctly, to this you will need to plug in a battery. With the drone powered you should be able to view any stick inputs on a receiver tab whilst checking that your switches match your intended flight modes. If this is not working correctly it may be linked to settings on your remote.

Test 3 – Motor Rotation
This is where your drone will start to come to life! With the battery still in head to the motors tab and click a box to confirm that you have taken off all of your propellers! Each motor should have a slider now you can use to power each motor.

You should slide it up a little one at a time to check that the correct motor is spinning for each channel and that the motors are spinning in the correct direction. If they are not behaving correctly you will need to change them. Refer to your software's motor layout for the correct order.

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Test 4 – Arming

We are ready to test that the drone arms and that you can control the motors with your remote! Connect up your battery, power on your transmitter and try flicking your arm switch. You can now try moving the sticks and hopefully the motors will move! Make sure that your disarm switch is working as you may need to use this in case of an emergency. If you cannot get your drone to arm here are some of the possible causes​.

Test 5 – Failsafe
We want to now check that the drone will cut out if we lose radio signal. If you don't have this correctly set up you risk either a fly away or the drone causing some damage if the remote is not powered up. To test the failsafe arm the drone and increase the throttle. With the motors spinning turn off the remote and see what happens, we are hoping that the drone cuts out within a second.

Test 6 – Anything Else!
With the important things all working you can now test out anything else like your OSD, beeper or telemetry to make sure everything is 100% before your maiden flight.

Test 7 – The Test Hover

If you've made it through all of these tests then that’s it you've done it! You are ready for your first test hover! You can now attach your propellers and head to an open area with no other people to check if it flies! One thing to note is that propellers come in clockwise and anticlockwise varieties.

prop_layout_diagram-drone" width="800" height="563

When attaching them make sure that you put them on the right way! This diagram from hobbyrc shows it nicely, make sure to put your props on nice and tight.

Place your drone far away from you, arm and gently increase the throttle and try to hover a few feet off the ground. Be ready to disarm or drop the throttle incase it flips out. If anything does go wrong refer to this video: Quadcopter Flips On Takeoff: Solved

Comment construire un drone - Guide étape par étape pour le bricolage 14

CONGRATULATIONS! – You've Done it!

If you've made it this far, and finished this indepth How to build a Drone guide, you've done it! Building your first drone is a big feat, you've had a mountain of information to get through and probably faced heaps of challenges along the way. The result however is a drone custom to your requirements that you can be proud of. Even better if anything ever goes wrong or breaks you'll know exactly how to fix it! Take care when flying it and look after it, there's nothing worse than seeing your pride and joy smash into hundreds of tiny pieces!

Thanks for sticking with me, you've read through enough now and must be excited. Charge up some batteries and go flying! Be warned however, building and flying drones is an addictive hobby you will always want one more! A bientôt, j'espère. Prendre plaisir!

If you would like to build a drone with the same parts as mine link to the complete setup can be found here.

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